Father of Hasan, Father of Dust, The Victorious Lion of Allah, The Commander
of the Faithful, Ali son of Abu Talib, on Him be Peace 1
THE TITLES OF Au.
(Through the courtesy of H.E. the Persian Minister.)
ISLAM UNDER THE FIRST FOUR CALIPHS
Politically Persia ceased for a while to enjoy a separate national existence,
being merged in that great Muhammadan Empire which stretched from
Gibraltar to the Jaxartes, but in the intellectual domain she soon began to
assert the supremacy to which the ability and subtlety of her people entitled
The Period <?/ the Caliphate, A.D. 632-1258.—The
Caliphate began with the election of Abu Bekr in A.D. 632
and lasted until A.D. 1258, when Hulagu Khan sacked!
Baghdad and put Motasim Billah to death. For nearly)
three centuries after this catastrophe the title of Caliph
was perpetuated in Egypt by descendants of the House
ofrAbbggjfrho lived under the protection of its Mameluke
rulers, until in A.D. j^j ^i^an^Selimj the Osmanli, having
conquered the Mameluke dynasty, induced the helpless
Caliph to transfer to him the title and insignia. It is
on this transaction (recorded in Chapter LXIL) that the
Sultans of Turkey b^e their claim to the sacred position
of Caliph and to other high titles.
The Caliphate falls into three well-defined periods :